What do these operators mean (** , ^ , %, //)?

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Other than the standard +, -, *and / operators; but what does these mean (** , ^ , %, //) ?

>>> 9+float(2) # addition
11.0
>>> 9-float(2) # subtraction
7.0
>>> 9*float(2) # multiplication
18.0
>>> 9/float(2) # division
4.5
>>>
>>> 9**float(2) # This looks like a square, (i.e. power 2) 
81.0
>>> 9**float(3) # So ** is equivalent to `math.pow(x,p)` ?
729.0

How about the ^ operator?

>>> 9^int(2) # What is `^` in `x^u` , it only allows `int` for `u`
11
>>> 9^int(3)
10
>>> 9^int(4)
13
>>> 9^int(5)
12
>>> 9^int(6)
15
>>> 9^int(7)
14
>>> 9^int(8)
1
>>> 9^int(9)
0
>>> 9^int(10)
3
>>> 9^int(11)
2
>>> 9^int(12)
5

% in x%m returns a normal remainder modulus, but only if m < x, why is that so? What does % do?

>>> 9%float(2)
1.0
>>> 9%float(3)
0.0
>>> 9%float(4)
1.0
>>> 9%float(5)
4.0
>>> 9%float(6)
3.0
>>> 9%float(7)
2.0
>>> 9%float(8)
1.0
>>> 9%float(9)
0.0
>>> 9%float(10)
9.0
>>> 9%float(11)
9.0
>>> 9%float(12)
9.0

How about the // operator? what does it do?

>>> 9//float(2)
4.0
>>> 9//float(3)
3.0
>>> 9//float(4)
2.0
>>> 9//float(5)
1.0
>>> 9//float(6)
1.0
>>> 9//float(7)
1.0
>>> 9//float(8)
1.0
>>> 9//float(9)
1.0
>>> 9//float(1)
9.0
>>> 9//float(0.5)
18.0

Solution

  • **: exponentiation
  • ^: exclusive-or (bitwise)
  • %: modulus
  • //: divide with integral result (discard remainder)

Source: StackOverflow.com

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