android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for . Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify

Total
0
Shares

After upgrading to android 12, the application is not compiling. It shows

"Manifest merger failed with multiple errors, see logs"

Error showing in Merged manifest:

Merging Errors:
Error: android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for . Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify an explicit value for android:exported when the corresponding component has an intent filter defined. See https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/activity-element#exported for details. main manifest (this file)

I have set all the activity with android:exported="false". But it is still showing this issue.

My manifest file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    package="eu.siacs.conversations">

    <uses-sdk tools:overrideLibrary="net.ypresto.androidtranscoder" />

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_CONTACTS" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_PROFILE" />
    <uses-permission
        android:name="android.permission.READ_PHONE_STATE"
        android:maxSdkVersion="22" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WAKE_LOCK" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.RECEIVE_BOOT_COMPLETED" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.VIBRATE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.REQUEST_IGNORE_BATTERY_OPTIMIZATIONS" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_WIFI_STATE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.FOREGROUND_SERVICE" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.REQUEST_INSTALL_PACKAGES" />

    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.location"
        android:required="false" />
    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.location.gps"
        android:required="false" />
    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.location.network"
        android:required="false" />

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CAMERA" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.RECORD_AUDIO" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.MODIFY_AUDIO_SETTINGS" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW" />

    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.camera"
        android:required="false" />
    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.camera.autofocus"
        android:required="false" />
    <uses-feature
        android:name="android.hardware.microphone"
        android:required="false" />

    <application
        android:name=".Application"
        android:allowBackup="false"
        android:allowClearUserData="true"
        android:appCategory="social"
        android:hardwareAccelerated="true"
        android:icon="@mipmap/ic_app_launch"
        android:label="@string/app_name"
        android:largeHeap="true"
        android:networkSecurityConfig="@xml/network_security_configuration"
        android:requestLegacyExternalStorage="true"
        android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_app_launch_round"
        android:theme="@style/ConversationsTheme"
        android:usesCleartextTraffic="true"
        android:windowSoftInputMode="adjustPan|adjustResize"
        tools:replace="android:label"
        tools:targetApi="q">
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.search.GroupSearchActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.profileUpdating.FavouritesActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.profileUpdating.NameActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.CompulsoryUpdateActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.payments.doPayment.DoPaymentActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.individualList.IndividualListActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.payments.setPayment.SetPaymentActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.login.otpActivity.OTPActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.login.loginActivity.LoginActivity"
            android:exported="true" />

        <service android:name=".services.XmppConnectionService" android:exported="true" />

        <receiver android:name=".services.EventReceiver"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.BOOT_COMPLETED" />
                <action android:name="android.net.conn.CONNECTIVITY_CHANGE" />
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.ACTION_SHUTDOWN" />
                <action android:name="android.media.RINGER_MODE_CHANGED" />
            </intent-filter>
        </receiver>

        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ShareLocationActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_share_location"
            android:exported="true"/>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.SearchActivity"
            android:label="@string/search_messages"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.RecordingActivity"
            android:configChanges="orientation|screenSize"
            android:theme="@style/ConversationsTheme.Dialog"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ShowLocationActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_show_location"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.SplashActivity"
            android:theme="@style/SplashTheme"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ConversationsActivity"
            android:label="@string/app_name"
            android:launchMode="singleTask"
            android:minWidth="300dp"
            android:minHeight="300dp"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ScanActivity"
            android:screenOrientation="portrait"
            android:exported="true"
            android:theme="@style/ConversationsTheme.FullScreen"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateAlwaysHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.UriHandlerActivity"
            android:label="@string/app_name"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />

                <data android:scheme="xmpp" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter android:autoVerify="true">
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />

                <data android:scheme="https" />
                <data android:host="im.app.in" />
                <data android:pathPrefix="/i/" />
                <data android:pathPrefix="/j/" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.SENDTO" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:scheme="imto" />
                <data android:host="jabber" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.StartConversationActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_start_conversation"
            android:launchMode="singleTop"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.SettingsActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_settings"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.NOTIFICATION_PREFERENCES" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ChooseContactActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_choose_contact"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.BlocklistActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_block_list"
            android:exported="true"/>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ChangePasswordActivity"
            android:label="@string/change_password_on_server"
            android:exported="true"/>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ChooseAccountForProfilePictureActivity"
            android:enabled="false"
            android:label="@string/choose_account"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter android:label="@string/set_profile_picture">
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.ATTACH_DATA" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:mimeType="image/*" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ShareViaAccountActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_share_via_account"
            android:launchMode="singleTop"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.EditAccountActivity"
            android:launchMode="singleTop"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateHidden|adjustResize" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ConferenceDetailsActivity"
            android:label="@string/action_muc_details"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ContactDetailsActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.PublishProfilePictureActivity"
            android:label="@string/mgmt_account_publish_avatar"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.PublishGroupChatProfilePictureActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:label="@string/group_chat_avatar" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ShareWithActivity"
            android:label="@string/app_name"
            android:launchMode="singleTop"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.SEND" />
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.SEND_MULTIPLE" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:mimeType="text/plain" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.SEND" />
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.SEND_MULTIPLE" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:mimeType="*/*" />
            </intent-filter>

            <!-- the value here needs to be the full class name; independent of the configured applicationId -->
            <meta-data
                android:name="android.service.chooser.chooser_target_service"
                android:value="eu.siacs.conversations.services.ContactChooserTargetService" />
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.TrustKeysActivity"
            android:label="@string/trust_omemo_fingerprints"
            android:exported="true"
            android:windowSoftInputMode="stateAlwaysHidden" />
        <activity
            android:name="com.theartofdev.edmodo.cropper.CropImageActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:theme="@style/Base.Theme.AppCompat" />
        <activity android:name=".ui.MemorizingActivity"
            android:exported="true" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.MediaBrowserActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:label="@string/media_browser" />

        <service android:name=".services.ExportBackupService" android:exported="true"/>
        <service android:name=".services.ImportBackupService" android:exported="true"/>
        <service
            android:name=".services.ContactChooserTargetService"
            android:permission="android.permission.BIND_CHOOSER_TARGET_SERVICE"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.service.chooser.ChooserTargetService" />
            </intent-filter>
        </service>
        <service android:name=".services.CompulsoryUpdateService" android:exported="true"/>

        <provider
            android:name="androidx.core.content.FileProvider"
            android:authorities="${applicationId}.files"
            android:exported="false"
            android:grantUriPermissions="true">
            <meta-data
                android:name="android.support.FILE_PROVIDER_PATHS"
                android:resource="@xml/file_paths" />
        </provider>
        <provider
            android:name=".services.BarcodeProvider"
            android:authorities="${applicationId}.barcodes"
            android:exported="false"
            android:grantUriPermissions="true" />

        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ShortcutActivity"
            android:label="@string/contact"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.CREATE_SHORTCUT" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.MucUsersActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:label="@string/group_chat_members" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ChannelDiscoveryActivity"
            android:exported="true"
            android:label="@string/discover_channels" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.RtpSessionActivity"
            android:autoRemoveFromRecents="true"
            android:exported="true"
            android:launchMode="singleInstance"
            android:supportsPictureInPicture="true" />
    </application>

</manifest>

My second manifest file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    xmlns:tools="http://schemas.android.com/tools"
    package="eu.siacs.conversations">

    <application tools:ignore="GoogleAppIndexingWarning">
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ManageAccountActivity"
            android:label="@string/title_activity_manage_accounts"
            android:launchMode="singleTask"
            android:exported="true"/>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.MagicCreateActivity"
            android:label="@string/create_new_account"
            android:launchMode="singleTask"
            android:exported="true"/>
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.EasyOnboardingInviteActivity"
            android:label="@string/invite_to_app"
            android:launchMode="singleTask" />
        <activity
            android:name=".ui.ImportBackupActivity"
            android:label="@string/restore_backup"
            android:launchMode="singleTask"
            android:exported="true">
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:mimeType="application/vnd.conversations.backup" />
                <data android:scheme="content" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

                <data android:mimeType="application/vnd.conversations.backup" />
                <data android:scheme="file" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />

                <data android:scheme="content" />
                <data android:host="*" />
                <data android:mimeType="*/*" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
            </intent-filter>
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />

                <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />

                <data android:scheme="file" />
                <data android:host="*" />
                <data android:mimeType="*/*" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
                <data android:pathPattern=".*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\..*\.ceb" />
            </intent-filter>
        </activity>
    </application>
</manifest>

My gradle file:

import com.android.build.OutputFile

// Top-level build file where you can add configuration options common to all
// sub-projects/modules.
buildscript {
    ext.kotlin_version = "1.5.21"
    repositories {
        google()
        mavenCentral()
        maven { url 'https://jitpack.io' }
        gradlePluginPortal()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath 'com.android.tools.build:gradle:4.2.2'
        classpath 'com.google.gms:google-services:4.3.8'
        classpath "org.jetbrains.kotlin:kotlin-gradle-plugin:$kotlin_version"
    }
}

apply plugin: 'com.android.application'
apply plugin: 'kotlin-android'
apply plugin: 'kotlin-kapt'
apply plugin: 'com.google.gms.google-services'

repositories {
    google()
    mavenCentral()
    jcenter()
    maven { url 'https://jitpack.io' }
}

configurations {
    conversationsFreeCompatImplementation
}

dependencies {
    implementation 'androidx.viewpager:viewpager:1.0.0'
    implementation 'androidx.constraintlayout:constraintlayout:2.0.4'

    implementation "org.jetbrains.kotlin:kotlin-stdlib:$kotlin_version"

    implementation 'org.sufficientlysecure:openpgp-api:10.0'
    implementation 'com.theartofdev.edmodo:android-image-cropper:2.8.0'
    implementation 'androidx.appcompat:appcompat:1.3.1'
    implementation 'androidx.exifinterface:exifinterface:1.3.2'
    implementation 'androidx.cardview:cardview:1.0.0'
    implementation 'androidx.swiperefreshlayout:swiperefreshlayout:1.1.0'
    implementation 'androidx.emoji:emoji:1.1.0'
    implementation 'com.google.android.material:material:1.4.0'
    conversationsFreeCompatImplementation 'androidx.emoji:emoji-bundled:1.1.0'
    implementation 'org.bouncycastle:bcmail-jdk15on:1.64'
    //zxing stopped supporting Java 7 so we have to stick with 3.3.3
    //https://github.com/zxing/zxing/issues/1170
    implementation 'com.google.zxing:core:3.4.1'
    implementation 'de.measite.minidns:minidns-hla:0.2.4'
    implementation 'me.leolin:ShortcutBadger:[email protected]'
    implementation 'org.whispersystems:signal-protocol-java:2.8.1'
    implementation 'com.makeramen:roundedimageview:2.3.0'
    implementation "com.wefika:flowlayout:0.4.1"
    implementation 'net.ypresto.androidtranscoder:android-transcoder:0.3.0'
    implementation 'org.jxmpp:jxmpp-jid:1.0.1'
    implementation 'org.osmdroid:osmdroid-android:6.1.10'
    implementation 'org.hsluv:hsluv:0.2'
    implementation 'org.conscrypt:conscrypt-android:2.5.2'
    implementation 'me.drakeet.support:toastcompat:1.1.0'
    implementation "com.leinardi.android:speed-dial:3.2.0"

    implementation "com.squareup.retrofit2:retrofit:2.9.0"
    implementation "com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-gson:2.9.0"
    implementation "com.squareup.okhttp3:okhttp:5.0.0-alpha.2"
    implementation 'com.squareup.okhttp3:logging-interceptor:5.0.0-alpha.2'

    implementation 'com.google.guava:guava:30.1.1-android'
    implementation 'org.webrtc:google-webrtc:1.0.32006'

    // Lifecycle Helper
    implementation "androidx.activity:activity-ktx:1.3.0-rc02"
    implementation "androidx.fragment:fragment-ktx:1.3.6"

    //Navigation
    implementation 'androidx.navigation:navigation-fragment-ktx:2.3.5'
    implementation 'androidx.navigation:navigation-ui-ktx:2.3.5'

    //CardView
    implementation "androidx.cardview:cardview:1.0.0"

    //Country Code Picker
    implementation 'com.hbb20:ccp:2.5.3'

    //Firebase
    implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-bom:28.3.0'
    implementation 'com.google.firebase:firebase-auth-ktx:21.0.1'
    implementation 'androidx.browser:browser:1.3.0'

    //OTP view
    implementation 'com.github.mukeshsolanki:android-otpview-pinview:2.1.2'

    //Retrofit
    implementation 'com.squareup.retrofit2:retrofit:2.9.0'
    implementation 'com.squareup.retrofit2:converter-gson:2.9.0'

    //Gson
    implementation 'com.google.code.gson:gson:2.8.7'

    //Multidex
    implementation 'androidx.multidex:multidex:2.0.1'

    //Round Image
    implementation 'de.hdodenhof:circleimageview:3.1.0'

    // Button with image and text
    implementation 'com.github.Omega-R:OmegaCenterIconButton:[email protected]'

    //Razor pay
    implementation 'com.razorpay:checkout:1.6.10'

    //Mixpanel Tracking
    implementation 'com.mixpanel.android:mixpanel-android:5.9.1'

    //Loading screen
    implementation 'com.wang.avi:library:2.1.3'

    //Loading
    implementation 'com.wang.avi:library:2.1.3'

    //Form
    implementation 'com.quickbirdstudios:surveykit:1.1.0'
}

ext {
    travisBuild = System.getenv("TRAVIS") == "true"
    preDexEnabled = System.getProperty("pre-dex", "true")
    abiCodes = ['armeabi-v7a': 1, 'x86': 2, 'x86_64': 3, 'arm64-v8a': 4]
}

android {
    compileSdkVersion 31

    defaultConfig {
        minSdkVersion 24
        targetSdkVersion 31
        versionCode 44
        versionName "2.0.4"
        multiDexEnabled = true
        archivesBaseName += "-$versionName"
        applicationId "com.app.app"
        resValue "string", "applicationId", applicationId
        def appName = "app"
        resValue "string", "app_name", appName
        buildConfigField "String", "APP_NAME", ""$appName""
    }

    splits {
        abi {
            universalApk true
            enable true
        }
    }

    configurations {
        compile.exclude group: 'org.jetbrains' , module:'annotations'
    }

    dataBinding {
        enabled true
    }

    dexOptions {
        // Skip pre-dexing when running on Travis CI or when disabled via -Dpre-dex=false.
        preDexLibraries = preDexEnabled && !travisBuild
        jumboMode true
    }

    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
        targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
    }

    flavorDimensions("mode", "distribution", "emoji")

    productFlavors {

        conversations {
            dimension "mode"
        }
        free {
            dimension "distribution"
            versionNameSuffix "+f"
        }
        compat {
            dimension "emoji"
            versionNameSuffix "c"
        }
    }

    sourceSets {
        conversationsFreeCompat {
            java {
                srcDir 'src/freeCompat/java'
                srcDir 'src/conversationsFree/java'
            }
        }
    }

    buildTypes {
        release {
            shrinkResources true
            minifyEnabled true
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
            versionNameSuffix "r"
        }
        debug {
            shrinkResources true
            minifyEnabled true
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro'
            versionNameSuffix "d"
        }
    }


    if (new File("signing.properties").exists()) {
        Properties props = new Properties()
        props.load(new FileInputStream(file("signing.properties")))

        signingConfigs {
            release {
                storeFile file(props['keystore'])
                storePassword props['keystore.password']
                keyAlias props['keystore.alias']
                keyPassword props['keystore.password']
            }
        }
        buildTypes.release.signingConfig = signingConfigs.release
    }

    lintOptions {
        disable 'MissingTranslation', 'InvalidPackage','AppCompatResource'
    }

    subprojects {

        afterEvaluate {
            if (getPlugins().hasPlugin('android') ||
                    getPlugins().hasPlugin('android-library')) {

                configure(android.lintOptions) {
                    disable 'AndroidGradlePluginVersion', 'MissingTranslation'
                }
            }

        }
    }

    packagingOptions {
        exclude 'META-INF/BCKEY.DSA'
        exclude 'META-INF/BCKEY.SF'
    }

    android.applicationVariants.all { variant ->
        variant.outputs.each { output ->
            def baseAbiVersionCode = project.ext.abiCodes.get(output.getFilter(OutputFile.ABI))
            if (baseAbiVersionCode != null) {
                output.versionCodeOverride = (100 * variant.versionCode) + baseAbiVersionCode
            }
        }

    }
}

Solution

I had this issue and one of the libraries I used wasn’t setting it correctly.

Find location

First of all, we need to find the exact location and/or cause for the error,
which can be done with different approaches (see below).

Find by inspecting merged-manifest (approach #1)

You can find it by doing the steps:

  • Set target SDK to 30 (to silence 31+ errors).

  • Open application’s manifest (AndroidManifest.xml) and click on "Merged Manifest" tab on bottom of your edit pane:
    Merged Manifest in Android Studio

    Which if you configure build.gradle like:

    allprojects {
       buildDir = "${rootProject.rootDir}/build/${project.name}"
    }
    

    Something similar should be in a sub-path like:

    build/my-app/intermediates/merged_manifest/debug/AndroidManifest.xml
    
  • Go to the individual manifest file of all the libraries (You can skip this step if the merged manifest is created and you can just look into the merged manifest)

  • Search if there’s any entry of type activity, service, receiver, or provider which does not have an exported attribute, and for each entry follow below "Fix found entries" section (or see once for how to set exported attribute).

  • Set target SDK back to 31 (or whatever it was before changing to 30).

Find by console logs (approach #2)

  • In Git-bash run something like:

    ./gradlew assembleDebug --stacktrace --info | tee my-logs.txt
    
  • Open my-logs.txt file (which previous step created, in your preferred text-editor).

  • Now, the exact location is hidden in the logs,
    hence search in the created my-logs.txt file,
    for these keywords:

    • activity#
    • service#
    • receiver#
    • provider#
  • Which should find something like:

activity#androidx.test.core.app.InstrumentationActivityInvoker$BootstrapActivity
ADDED from [androidx.test:core:1.2.0] C:UsersAdmin.gradlecachestransforms-3709730c74fe4dc9f8fd991eb4d1c2adctransformedjetified-core-1.2.0AndroidManifest.xml:27:9-33:20
  • Open AndroidManifest.xml file that previous steps did find, search if there’s any entry of type activity, service, receiver, or provider which does not have an exported attribute, and see below "Fix found entries" section (for how to set each entries exported attribute).

Note that (at time of writting) passing --stacktrace alone did not include location info 😉

Fix found entries

If the real (not build-generated) source of found entry is in root-project’s manifest (or somewhere you can alter),
set exported attribute to corresponding need (which is normally false) therein directly, like:

<receiver
    android:name="<name_of_the_entry>"
    android:exported="false or true"
    tools:node="merge" />

Note that both android:exported="..." and tools:node="merge" are set above.

But if found entry’s specification is written in the manifest of a third-party library (which’s real-source you can’t alter),
override the specification of said library by adding it to our root-project’s manifest, for example like:

<provider
    android:name="com.squareup.picasso.PicassoProvider"
    android:exported="false"
    tools:node="merge"
    tools:overrideLibrary="com.squareup.picasso.picasso" />

Note that this time tools:overrideLibrary="..." is set as well.

For more information see Documentation,
and/or Similar issue in a SDK.

Source: StackOverflow.com

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *