12 Solutions to Java 11 package javax.xml.bind does not exist

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Java 11 package javax.xml.bind does not exist because the Java EE modules are removed from it. You may also get the error like java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: javax/xml/bind/JAXBException.

java.xml.bind (JAXB) – REMOVED

  • Java 8 – OK
  • Java 9 – DEPRECATED
  • Java 10 – DEPRECATED
  • Java 11 – REMOVED

See JEP 320 for more info.

Solution 1: Using Alternate versions of Java EE

You can fix the issue by using alternate versions of the Java EE technologies. Simply add Maven dependencies that contain the classes you need:

<dependency>
  <groupId>javax.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-api</artifactId>
  <version>2.3.0</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-core</artifactId>
  <version>2.3.0</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-impl</artifactId>
  <version>2.3.0</version>
</dependency>

Solution 2: Using Jakarta XML Binding

Instead of using old JAXB modules you can fix the issue by using Jakarta XML Binding from Jakarta EE 8:

<dependency>
  <groupId>jakarta.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jakarta.xml.bind-api</artifactId>
  <version>2.3.3</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-impl</artifactId>
  <version>2.3.3</version>
  <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Solution 3: Using Jakarta.xml.bind-api

Use latest release of Jakarta XML Binding 3.0:

<dependency>
  <groupId>jakarta.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jakarta.xml.bind-api</artifactId>
  <version>3.0.0</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-impl</artifactId>
  <version>3.0.0</version>
  <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Note: Jakarta EE 9 adopts new API package namespace jakarta.xml.bind.*, so update import statements:

javax.xml.bind -> jakarta.xml.bind

Solution 4: Jakarta EE 10 update

Use latest release of Jakarta XML Binding 4.0 (requires Java SE 11 or newer):

<dependency>
  <groupId>jakarta.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jakarta.xml.bind-api</artifactId>
  <version>4.0.0</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
  <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
  <artifactId>jaxb-impl</artifactId>
  <version>4.0.0</version>
  <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

Solution 5: Spring boot fat jar

Add the following to pom.xml.

<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.xml.bind</groupId>
    <artifactId>jaxb-api</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.1</version>
</dependency>

Solution 6: Using --add-modules

The JAXB APIs are considered to be Java EE APIs and therefore are no longer contained on the default classpath in Java SE 9. In Java 11, they are completely removed from the JDK.

Java 9 introduces the concepts of modules, and by default, the java.se aggregate module is available on the classpath (or rather, module-path). As the name implies, the java.se aggregate module does not include the Java EE APIs that have been traditionally bundled with Java 6/7/8.

Fortunately, these Java EE APIs that were provided in JDK 6/7/8 are still in the JDK, but they just aren’t on the classpath by default. The extra Java EE APIs are provided in the following modules:

java.activation
java.corba
java.transaction
java.xml.bind  << This one contains the JAXB APIs
java.xml.ws
java.xml.ws.annotation

Quick and dirty solution: (JDK 9/10 only)

To make the JAXB APIs available at runtime, specify the following command-line option:

--add-modules java.xml.bind

But I still need this to work with Java 8!!!

If you try specifying --add-modules with an older JDK, it will blow up because it’s an unrecognized option. I suggest one of two options:

  1. You can set any Java 9+ only options using the JDK_JAVA_OPTIONS environment variable. This environment variable is automatically read by the java launcher for Java 9+.
  2. You can add the -XX:+IgnoreUnrecognizedVMOptions to make the JVM silently ignore unrecognized options, instead of blowing up. But beware! Any other command-line arguments you use will no longer be validated for you by the JVM. This option works with Oracle/OpenJDK as well as IBM JDK (as of JDK 8sr4).

Alternate quick solution: (JDK 9/10 only)

Note that you can make all of the above Java EE modules available at run time by specifying the --add-modules java.se.ee option. The java.se.ee module is an aggregate module that includes java.se.ee as well as the above Java EE API modules. Note, this doesn’t work on Java 11 because java.se.ee was removed in Java 11.

Long-term solution: (JDK 9 and beyond)

The Java EE API modules listed above are all marked @Deprecated(forRemoval=true) because they are scheduled for removal in Java 11. So the --add-module approach will no longer work in Java 11 out-of-the-box.

What you will need to do in Java 11 and forward is include your own copy of the Java EE APIs on the classpath or module path. For example, you can add the JAX-B APIs as a Maven dependency like this:

<!-- API, java.xml.bind module -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>jakarta.xml.bind</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.xml.bind-api</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.2</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Runtime, com.sun.xml.bind module -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.glassfish.jaxb</groupId>
    <artifactId>jaxb-runtime</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.2</version>
</dependency>

See the JAXB Reference Implementation page for more details on JAXB.

For full details on Java modularity, see JEP 261: Module System

As of July 2022, the latest version of the bind-api and jaxb-runtime is 4.0.0. So you can also use

    <version>4.0.0</version>

…within those dependency clauses. But if you do so, the package names have changed from javax.xml.bind... to jakarta.xml.bind.... You will need to modify your source code to use these later versions of the JARs.

For Gradle or Android Studio developer: (JDK 9 and beyond)

Add the following dependencies to your build.gradle file:

dependencies {
    // JAX-B dependencies for JDK 9+
    implementation "jakarta.xml.bind:jakarta.xml.bind-api:2.3.2"
    implementation "org.glassfish.jaxb:jaxb-runtime:2.3.2"
}

Solution 7: JAF (java.activation)

JavaBeans Activation Framework (now Jakarta Activation) is a standalone technology (available on Maven Central):

<dependency>
    <groupId>com.sun.activation</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.activation</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.2</version>
</dependency>

Solution 8: CORBA (java.corba)

From JEP 320:

There will not be a standalone version of CORBA unless third parties take over maintenance of the CORBA APIs, ORB implementation, CosNaming provider, etc. Third party maintenance is possible because the Java SE Platform endorses independent implementations of CORBA. In contrast, the API for RMI-IIOP is defined and implemented solely within Java SE. There will not be a standalone version of RMI-IIOP unless a dedicated JSR is started to maintain it, or stewardship of the API is taken over by the Eclipse Foundation (the transition of stewardship of Java EE from the JCP to the Eclipse Foundation includes GlassFish and its implementation of CORBA and RMI-IIOP).

Solution 9: JTA (java.transaction)

Stand alone version:

<dependency>
    <groupId>jakarta.transaction</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.transaction-api</artifactId>
    <version>1.3.3</version>
</dependency>

Solution 10: JAXB (java.xml.bind)

Since Java EE was rebranded to Jakarta EE, JAXB is now provided by new artifacts:

<!-- API -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>jakarta.xml.bind</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.xml.bind-api</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.3</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Runtime -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.sun.xml.bind</groupId>
    <artifactId>jaxb-impl</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.3</version>
    <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

<!-- Alternative runtime -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.glassfish.jaxb</groupId>
    <artifactId>jaxb-runtime</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.3</version>
    <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>

schemagen and xjc can be downloaded from there too as part of a standalone JAXB distribution.

Solution 11: JAX-WS (java.xml.ws)

Reference implementation:

<!-- API -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>jakarta.xml.ws</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.xml.ws-api</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.3</version>
</dependency>

<!-- Runtime -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.sun.xml.ws</groupId>
    <artifactId>jaxws-rt</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.3</version>
</dependency>

Standalone distribution download (contains wsgen and wsimport).

Solution 12: Common Annotations (java.xml.ws.annotation)

Java Commons Annotations (available on Maven Central):

<dependency>
    <groupId>jakarta.annotation</groupId>
    <artifactId>jakarta.annotation-api</artifactId>
    <version>1.3.5</version>
</dependency>

Sources:

  1. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/52502189/java-11-package-javax-xml-bind-does-not-exist
  2. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/43574426/how-to-resolve-java-lang-noclassdeffounderror-javax-xml-bind-jaxbexception
  3. https://stackoverflow.com/questions/48204141/replacements-for-deprecated-jpms-modules-with-java-ee-apis
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